Infectious tolerance is a process whereby one regulatory lymphoid population confers suppressive capacity on another. Diverse immune responses are induced following infection or inflammatory insult that can protect the host, or potentially cause damage if not properly controlled. Thus, the process of infectious tolerance may be critical in vivo for exerting effective immune control and maintaining immune homeostasis by generating specialized regulatory sub-populations with distinct mechanistic capabilities. Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T(regs)) are a central mediator of infectious tolerance through their ability to convert conventional T cells into induced regulatory T cells (iT(regs)) directly by secretion of the suppressive cytokines TGF-β, IL-10, or IL-35, or indirectly via dendritic cells. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and cell populations that mediate and contribute to infectious tolerance, with a focus on the intestinal environment, where tolerance induction to foreign material is critical.