Background: Children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) often require parenteral nutrition (PN) to optimize caloric intake. Standard approaches to nutritional supplementation provide 130-150% of estimated energy expenditure, but resting energy expenditure (REE) may be lower than expected after HSCT. Provision of PN exceeding energy needs may lead to overfeeding and associated complications.
Objective: We conducted a blinded, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial in children undergoing HSCT to determine the effect on body composition of 2 different approaches of nutrition support: standard amounts of energy from PN (130-150% of REE) compared with PN titrated to match measured REE.
Design: Twenty-six children undergoing HSCT were randomly assigned to standard or titrated PN. Energy intake was monitored until day 30 after HSCT. Body-composition and anthropometric measures were obtained through day 100. The primary outcome variable was percentage body fat (%BF) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Results: The estimated change in %BF from baseline to day 30 was 1.2 ± 0.5% in the standard group and 0.1 ± 0.5% in the experimental group, but the overall time course of %BF did not differ significantly by treatment (P = 0.39 for time × treatment interaction). A profound loss of lean body mass (LBM) occurred in both groups during the intervention period and persisted through day 100.
Conclusions: Parenteral energy intake titrated to energy expenditure does not result in a lower accumulation of BF than does standard energy intake. Neither titrated nor standard PN regimens during HSCT preserve LBM. Alternative approaches to preserve LBM are needed. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as 00115258.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00115258.