Risk factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals: traditional and HIV-related factors

Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 May;59(5):628-35. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.10.050. Epub 2011 Dec 28.


Background: Despite improvements in survival with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, kidney disease remains an important complication. Few studies have evaluated risk factors associated with the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-infected individuals. We sought to identify traditional and HIV-related risk factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals and compare ESRD risk by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria levels.

Study design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting & participants: 22,156 HIV-infected veterans without pre-existing ESRD receiving health care in the Veterans' Affairs medical system between 1996 and 2004.

Predictors: Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin <3.5 mg/dL), CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus coinfection, proteinuria, and eGFR were identified using the Veterans' Affairs electronic record system.

Outcomes: ESRD was ascertained by the US Renal Data System.

Results: 366 cases of ESRD occurred, corresponding to 3 cases/1,000 person-years. Hypertension (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4), diabetes (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2), and cardiovascular disease (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.7) were associated independently with ESRD risk in multivariate-adjusted models, as were CD4 lymphocyte count <200 cells/μL (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0), HIV viral load ≥30,000 copies/mL (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5-2.8), hepatitis C virus coinfection (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4), and hypoalbuminemia (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.5). Compared with persons without chronic kidney disease, defined as eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and no proteinuria, lower eGFR and higher proteinuria categories were associated jointly with exponentially higher ESRD rates, ranging from 6.6 events/1,000 person-years for persons with urine protein excretion of 30-100 mg/dL and eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) to 193 events/1,000 person-years for persons with urine protein excretion ≥300 mg/dL and eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2).

Limitations: Results may not be generalizable to female and nonveteran populations.

Conclusions: In HIV-infected persons, ESRD risk appears attributable to a combination of traditional and HIV-related risk factors for kidney disease. Combining eGFR and proteinuria for chronic kidney disease staging is most effective for stratifying the risk of ESRD.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes Complications / complications*
  • Diabetes Complications / ethnology
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / physiology
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / complications*
  • Kidney Diseases / ethnology
  • Kidney Diseases / physiopathology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / ethnology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Proteinuria / complications*
  • Proteinuria / ethnology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index*