Background and aims: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that low-glycemic index diets could protect against weight gain. However, the relationship between these diets and adipokines or inflammatory markers is unclear. In the present study we examine how the dietary glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) are associated with several adipokines and related metabolic risk markers of obesity and diabetes in a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner.
Methods and results: 511 elderly community-dwelling men and women at high cardiovascular risk were recruited for the PREDIMED trial. Dietary data were collected at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. The GI and GL were calculated. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and other metabolic risk markers were measured at baseline and after 1 year. At baseline, subjects in the highest quartiles of GI showed significantly higher levels of TNF and IL-6 than those in the lowest quartiles. Dietary GI index was negatively related to plasma leptin and adiponectin levels. After 1 year of follow-up, subjects with a higher increase in dietary GI or GL showed a greater reduction in leptin and adiponectin plasma levels. There was no association between GI or GL and the other metabolic markers measured.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the consumption of high-GI or high-GL diets may modulate plasma concentrations of leptin and adiponectin, both adipostatic molecules implicated in energy balance and cardiometabolic risk.
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