Objectives: The common ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel variants E23K and S1369A, found in the KCNJ11 and ABCC8 genes, respectively, form a haplotype that is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies showed that KATP channel inhibition by the A-site sulfonylurea gliclazide was increased in the K23/A1369 haplotype. Therefore, we studied the pharmacogenomics of seven clinically used sulfonylureas and glinides to determine their structure-activity relationships in KATP channels containing either the E23/S1369 nonrisk or K23/A1369 risk haplotypes.
Research design and methods: The patch-clamp technique was used to determine sulfonylurea and glinide inhibition of recombinant human KATP channels containing either the E23/S1369 or the K23/A1369 haplotype.
Results: KATP channels containing the K23/A1369 risk haplotype were significantly less sensitive to inhibition by tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, and glimepiride (IC50 values for K23/A1369 vs. E23/S1369=1.15 vs. 0.71 μmol/l; 4.19 vs. 3.04 μmol/l; 4.38 vs. 2.41 nmol/l, respectively). In contrast, KATP channels containing the K23/A1369 haplotype were significantly more sensitive to inhibition by mitiglinide (IC50=9.73 vs. 28.19 nmol/l for K23/A1369 vs. E23/S1369) and gliclazide. Nateglinide, glipizide, and glibenclamide showed similar inhibitory profiles in KATP channels containing either haplotype.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the ring-fused pyrrole moiety in several A-site drugs likely underlies the observed inhibitory potency of these drugs on KATP channels containing the K23/A1369 risk haplotype. It may therefore be possible to tailor existing therapy or design novel drugs that display an increased efficacy in type 2 diabetes patients homozygous for these common KATP channel haplotypes.