Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: focus on the central melanocortin system

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Dec;1243:1-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06248.x.


Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiological relevance of this circuitry in the context of glucose and energy balance. In addition, we will discuss distinct neuronal populations that respond to central melanocortins to regulate food intake, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, respectively. Finally, multiple hormonal and neural cues (e.g., leptin, estrogen, and serotonin) that use the melanocortin systems to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis will be reviewed. These findings suggest that targeting the specific branches of melanocortin circuits may be potential avenues to combat the current obesity and diabetes epidemics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Agouti-Related Protein / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Central Nervous System / metabolism*
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Estrogens / metabolism
  • Female
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Leptin / metabolism
  • Male
  • Melanocortins / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Models, Neurological
  • Neuropeptide Y / metabolism
  • Pro-Opiomelanocortin / metabolism
  • Receptors, Melanocortin / metabolism
  • Serotonin / metabolism


  • Agouti-Related Protein
  • Estrogens
  • Leptin
  • Melanocortins
  • Neuropeptide Y
  • Receptors, Melanocortin
  • Serotonin
  • Pro-Opiomelanocortin
  • Glucose