Animal welfare and the 3Rs in European biomedical research

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Dec;1245:14-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06335.x.


The new Directive 2010/63/EU to ensure harmonization of animal experimentation rules has potential to increase implementation of the 3Rs (reduce, refine, replace) and improve animal welfare across Europe.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Experimentation / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Animal Experimentation / standards
  • Animal Welfare / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Animal Welfare / standards
  • Animals
  • European Union
  • United Kingdom