Best practices for the use of animals in toxicological research and testing

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Dec;1245:17-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06334.x.


Animal models serve an important role in assessing preclinical safety and efficacy of new medicines and vaccines; however, such assessments can involve significant pain and distress and large numbers of animals. Best practice approaches seek to enhance animal well-being, minimize or avoid pain and distress, and use fewer animals. Advances in science and technology are providing opportunities for improved mechanism-based models and integrated safety assessments that will support improved animal welfare and reduce animal use.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Experimentation / standards*
  • Animal Use Alternatives / trends
  • Animal Welfare / standards
  • Animal Welfare / trends
  • Animals
  • Models, Animal
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (U.S.) / standards
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards
  • Systems Biology
  • Toxicology / standards*
  • Toxicology / trends
  • United States