Is oxidative stress, a link between nephrolithiasis and obesity, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome?

Urol Res. 2012 Apr;40(2):95-112. doi: 10.1007/s00240-011-0448-9. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have provided the evidence for association between nephrolithiasis and a number of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome. Many of the co-morbidities may not only lead to stone disease but also be triggered by it. Nephrolithiasis is a risk factor for development of hypertension and have higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and some hypertensive and diabetic patients are at greater risk for stone formation. An analysis of the association between stone disease and other simultaneously appearing disorders, as well as factors involved in their pathogenesis, may provide an insight into stone formation and improved therapies for stone recurrence and prevention. It is our hypothesis that association between stone formation and development of co-morbidities is a result of certain common pathological features. Review of the recent literature indicates that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and development of oxidative stress (OS) may be such a common pathway. OS is a common feature of all cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarct. There is increasing evidence that ROS are also produced during idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. Both tissue culture and animal model studies demonstrate that ROS are produced during interaction between CaOx/calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals and renal epithelial cells. Clinical studies have also provided evidence for the development of oxidative stress in the kidneys of stone forming patients. Renal disorders which lead to OS appear to be a continuum. Stress produced by one disorder may trigger the other under the right circumstances.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology
  • Kidney Diseases / physiopathology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Nephrolithiasis / epidemiology
  • Nephrolithiasis / physiopathology*
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / physiopathology*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*