Operational definitions and algorithms for excessive sleepiness in the general population: implications for DSM-5 nosology

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;69(1):71-9. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1240.


Context: Excessive sleepiness (ES) is poorly defined in epidemiologic studies, although its adverse implications for safety, health, and optimal social and vocational functioning have been extensively reported.

Objective: To determine the importance of ES definition, measurement, and prevalence in the general population, together with its coexisting conditions.

Design: Cross-sectional telephone study.

Participants: A total of 15 929 individuals representative of the adult general population of 15 states in the United States.

Main outcome measures: Interviews were carried out using Sleep-EVAL, a knowledge-based expert system for use in epidemiologic studies, focusing on sleep, as well as physical and mental disorders, according to classification in DSM-IV and the second edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. The interviews elicited information on ES, naps, frequency, duration, impairment, and distress associated with ES symptoms.

Results: Excessive sleepiness was reported by 27.8% (95% CI, 27.1%-28.5%) of the sample. Excessive sleepiness with associated symptoms was found in 15.6% of the participants (95% CI, 15.0%-16.2%). Adding an ES frequency of at least 3 times per week for at least 3 months despite normal sleep duration dropped the prevalence to 4.7% of the sample (95% CI, 4.4%-5.0%). The proportion of individuals having social or professional impairment and psychological distress increased with the frequency of ES symptoms during the week and within the same day. In multivariate models, the number of ES episodes per day and severity of ES were identified as the best predictors for impairment/distress. Prevalence of hypersomnia disorder was 1.5% of the participants (95% CI, 1.3%-1.7%). The most common coexisting conditions were mood and substance use disorders.

Conclusions: Excessive sleepiness is an important problem in the US population, even when using restrictive criteria to define it. Hypersomnia disorder is more prevalent than previously estimated. Excessive sleepiness has to be recognized and given attention by public health authorities, scientists, and clinicians.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders*
  • Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / diagnosis*
  • Disorders of Excessive Somnolence / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic / methods
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mood Disorders / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult