Bioaerosol assessment in naturally ventilated historical library building with restricted personnel access

Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011;18(2):323-9.


The aim of this study was to check the degree and identify the sources of microbial contamination of the Jasna Gora (Bright Hill) monastery library 10 years after disinfection of the incunabula collection. The registered maximum viable indoor microbial concentrations were 1,875 and 7,100 cfu/m³ for stationary and personal measurements, whereas respective total concentrations were 71,000 and 100,000 counts/m3. There was no statistically significant difference between the concentrations of viable microorganisms measured in the stationary using Andersen, GSP, and Button samplers. Moreover, GSP and Button samplers can be interchangeably applied when viable or total microbial levels are stationary or personally measured. The culturable microorganisms constituted 0.5 - 3.9% of the total microflora only. Filamentous fungi were the most prevalent outdoors, whereas Gram-positive cocci and endospore forming Gram-positive rods dominated indoors in the air and settled dust, respectively. Hence, an unrestrained infiltration of ambient air through the draughtiness of the building envelope is probably the main process responsible for indoor fungal pollution, whereas bacterial contaminants have their major sources in the indoor environment. Moreover, even a chemically cleansed library collection, having a restricted personnel access, but under the influence of ambient air, can undergo microbial contamination and becomes an important microbial emission source.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aerosols / analysis
  • Air Microbiology*
  • Air Pollutants / analysis*
  • Air Pollution, Indoor*
  • Bacteria / classification
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification*
  • Disinfection
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Fungi / classification
  • Fungi / isolation & purification*
  • Libraries*
  • Manuscripts as Topic
  • Poland
  • Seasons
  • Ventilation


  • Aerosols
  • Air Pollutants