Hypercalciuria is one of the early manifestations of diabetic nephropathy. We explored here the role of α-Klotho, a protein expressed predominantly in distal convoluted tubules that has a role in calcium reabsorption. We studied 31 patients with early diabetic nephropathy and compared them with 31 patients with IgA nephropathy and 7 with minimal change disease. Renal α-Klotho expression was significantly lower and urinary calcium excretion (UCa/UCr) significantly higher in diabetic nephropathy than in IgA nephropathy or minimal change disease. Multiple regression analyses indicated that α-Klotho mRNA was inversely correlated with calcium excretion. We next measured these parameters in a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy, characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration, as seen in early diabetic nephropathy. We also confirmed a reduction of renal α-Klotho mRNA down to almost 50% and enhanced calcium excretion in mice with STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in comparison with nondiabetic mice. Hypercalciuria was exacerbated in heterozygous α-Klotho knockout mice in comparison with wild-type mice, each with STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy. Thus, α-Klotho expression was decreased in distal convoluted tubules in diabetic nephropathy in humans and mice. Renal loss of α-Klotho may affect urinary calcium excretion in early diabetic nephropathy.