Objective: To evaluate the effect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy on perinatal morbidity and mortality.
Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis in an electronic database and manual, combining high sensitivity specific descriptors seeking to answer the research objective. The articles considered to be of high methodological quality (score above 6 on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) were assessed by meta-analysis.
Results: Summary estimates of 12 studies were calculated by means of Mantel-Haenszel test with 95% confidence interval. It was observed that Chlamydia infection during pregnancy increased risk of preterm labor (relative risk (RR) = 1.35 [1.11, 1.63]), low birth weight (RR = 1.52 [1.24, 1.87]) and perinatal mortality (RR = 1.84 [1.15, 2.94]). No evidence of increased risk was associated with Chlamydia infection in regard to premature rupture of membranes (RR = 1.13 [0.95, 1.34]), abortion and postpartum endometritis (RR = 1.20 [0.65, 2.20] and 0.89 [0.49, 1.61] respectively).
Conclusion: The diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia cervicitis during pregnancy can reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with this infection. However, clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.