Determinants of Vitamin D Status Among Overweight and Obese Puerto Rican Adults

Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(1):35-43. doi: 10.1159/000335282. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Abstract

Background/aims: Low vitamin D status is highly prevalent worldwide, and the major determinants are sun exposure and vitamin D intake. We aimed to measure vitamin D status in a sample of overweight/obese adults in Puerto Rico, an area with plenty of sun exposure, and relate it to vitamin D intake, sun exposure and body composition.

Methods: Serum 25(OH)D levels (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry), body weight and fat (bioimpedance), vitamin D intake and sun exposure (questionnaires) were assessed. Analysis included age-adjusted correlations and multivariate regression.

Results: In 98 subjects (66% females; 40-65 years), median serum 25(OH)D levels were 30.7 ng/ml (25-75th percentile 25.0-37.3); 55% had levels >30 ng/ml, 31% had levels between 20 and 30 ng/ml and 14% had levels <20 ng/ml. Total vitamin D intake was 180 IU/day (45-615), and the sun exposure score was 22 (17-27). After adjusting for gender, 25(OH)D levels were significantly correlated with vitamin D intake (r = 0.24, p = 0.018), the sum of sun exposure and vitamin D intake indices (r = 0.34, p = 0.001) and percent body fat (r = -0.25, p = 0.01). After adjusting for age, gender and percent body fat, the sum of sun exposure and vitamin D intake indices remained statistically associated with 25(OH)D levels (β = 1.5, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: In this group of overweight and obese individuals, 25(OH)D was significantly related to vitamin D intake, sun exposure and vitamin D intake indices and percent body fat.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2 / blood*
  • Adiposity
  • Adult
  • Anthropometry
  • Body Composition
  • Calcifediol / blood*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / complications
  • Overweight / blood*
  • Overweight / complications
  • Puerto Rico / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Skin Pigmentation
  • Sunlight
  • Urban Population
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*

Substances

  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2
  • Calcifediol