Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins, or Siglecs, vary in their specificity for sialic acid-containing ligands and are mainly expressed by cells of the immune system. Many Siglecs are inhibitory receptors expressed in innate immune cells that regulate inflammation mediated by damage-associated and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and PAMPs). This family also includes molecules involved in adhesion and phagocytosis and receptors that can associate with the ITAM-containing DAP12 adaptor. Siglecs contribute to the inhibition of immune cells both by binding to cis ligands (expressed in the same cells) and by responding to pathogen-derived sialoglycoconjugates. They can help maintain tolerance in B lymphocytes, modulate the activation of conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and contribute to the regulation of T cell function both directly and indirectly. Siglecs modulate immune responses, influencing almost every cell in the immune system, and are of relevance both in health and disease.