Proton NMR spectroscopy is emerging from translational and preclinical neuroscience research as an important tool for evidence based diagnosis and therapy monitoring. It provides biomarkers that offer fingerprints of neurological disorders even in cases where a lesion is not yet observed in MR images. The collection of molecules used as cerebral biomarkers that are detectable by (1)H NMR spectroscopy define the so-called "neurochemical profile". The non-invasive quality of this technique makes it suitable not only for diagnostic purposes but also for therapy monitoring paralleling an eventual neuroprotection. The application of (1)H NMR spectroscopy in basic and translational neuroscience research is discussed here.
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