An α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 184.108.40.206) isolated from the living fossil sponge Astrosclera willeyana, Astrosclerin, was investigated for its inhibition profile with simple inorganic anions, complex anions and other small molecules known to interact with these zinc enzymes. Astrosclerin is a catalytically highly efficient enzyme, and is inhibited in the low micromolar range by sulfamide, sulfamic acid, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, and in the submillimolar range by a variety of anions including fluoride, chloride, cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, bisulfate, stannate, perosmate, divanadate, perrhenate, perruthenate, selenocyanide, trithiocarbonate, diethyldithiocarbamate and iminodisulfonate. Less efficient Astrosclerin inhibitors were sulfate, bromide, iodide, azide, bicarbonate, carbonate, tetraborate and perchlorate (K(I)s of 5.11-30.6mM) whereas tetrafluoroborate was not at all inhibitory. Because Astrosclerin is involved in calcification processes in vivo, its anion inhibition profile may be important for future studies designed to shed light on the physiologic functions of α-CAs in marine organisms.
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