Background and aims: Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar radiation during summertime (April-September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied.
Methods: A random sample of 6784 persons from a general population aged 30-60 years participated in a health examination in 1999-2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other lifestyle factors were obtained by questionnaires. A total of 6146 persons defined as ethnic Danes and with successful measurements of 25(OH)D were included in the analyses.
Results: The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D<25 nmol/l) and insufficiency (25(OH)D<50 nmol/l) were 13.8% and 52.2%, respectively. A marked seasonal fluctuation was seen in serum levels of 25(OH)D - median values of 25(OH)D were lowest in February and highest in August. In multiple logistic regression models (n=5506), low vitamin D status was significantly associated with obesity (BMI≥30), daily smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. However, measurements of 25(OH)D were not associated with the estimated dietary intake of vitamin D. Comparison of two HPLC methods demonstrated considerable differences in accuracy.
Discussion and conclusions: Our results suggest that poor vitamin D status is common among adults in a Northern European country without food fortification with vitamin D. Methodological issues are, however, of great importance when using cut-off values to define poor vitamin D status. In addition, we demonstrated that low serum levels of 25(OH)D were associated with several lifestyle factors.
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