Background: Little is known about how hospital organizational and cultural factors associated with implementation of quality initiatives such as the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's (IHI) 100,000 Lives Campaign differ among levels of healthcare staff.
Design: Evaluation of a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodology ("trilogic evaluation model").
Setting: Six hospitals that joined the campaign before June 2006.
Participants: Three strata of staff (executive leadership, midlevel, and frontline) at each hospital. RESULTS. Surveys were completed in 2008 by 135 hospital personnel (midlevel, 43.7%; frontline, 38.5%; executive, 17.8%) who also participated in 20 focus groups. Overall, 93% of participants were aware of the IHI campaign in their hospital and perceived that 58% (standard deviation, 22.7%) of improvements in quality at their hospital were a direct result of the campaign. There were significant differences between staff levels on the organizational culture (OC) items, with executive-level staff having higher scores than midlevel and frontline staff. All 20 focus groups perceived that the campaign interventions were sustainable and that data feedback, buy-in, hardwiring (into daily activities), and leadership support were essential to sustainability.
Conclusions: The trilogic model demonstrated that the 3 levels of staff had markedly different perceptions regarding the IHI campaign and OC. A framework in which frontline, midlevel, and leadership staff are simultaneously assessed may be a useful tool for future evaluations of OC and quality initiatives such as the IHI campaign.