We report the first case of Mycobacterium avium reactivation, after prolonged latency, in a HIV-infected patient receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy with undetectable viral replication and normal CD4 cell count. The patient presented with a painful swollen shoulder seven years after initial M. avium bacteriaemia. Articular puncture grew M. avium. The isolates of the first and second infection were identical using repetitive-sequence-based Polymerase Chain Reaction analyses.
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