Background: Identification of protein-protein interactions is a fundamental aspect of understanding protein function. A commonly used method for identifying protein interactions is the yeast two-hybrid system.
Results: Here we describe the application of next-generation sequencing to yeast two-hybrid interaction screens and develop Quantitative Interactor Screen Sequencing (QIS-Seq). QIS-Seq provides a quantitative measurement of enrichment for each interactor relative to its frequency in the library as well as its general stickiness (non-specific binding). The QIS-Seq approach is scalable and can be used with any yeast two-hybrid screen and with any next-generation sequencing platform. The quantitative nature of QIS-Seq data make it amenable to statistical evaluation, and importantly, facilitates the standardization of experimental design, data collection, and data analysis. We applied QIS-Seq to identify the Arabidopsis thaliana MLO2 protein as a target of the Pseudomonas syringae type III secreted effector protein HopZ2. We validate the interaction between HopZ2 and MLO2 in planta and show that the interaction is required for HopZ2-associated virulence.
Conclusions: We demonstrate that QIS-Seq is a high-throughput quantitative interactor screen and validate MLO2 as an interactor and novel virulence target of the P. syringae type III secreted effector HopZ2.