Selectively increasing the clearance of protein-bound uremic solutes

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Apr;27(4):1574-9. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr691. Epub 2012 Jan 9.


Background: The toxicity of bound solutes could be better evaluated if we could adjust the clearance of such solutes independent of unbound solutes. This study assessed whether bound solute clearances can be increased while maintaining urea clearance constant during the extended hours of nocturnal dialysis.

Methods: Nine patients on thrice-weekly nocturnal dialysis underwent two experimental dialysis treatments 1 week apart. The experimental treatments were designed to provide the same urea clearance while providing widely different bound solute clearance. One treatment employed a large dialyzer and high dialyzate flow rate (Qd) of 800 mL/min while blood flow (Qb) was 270 mL/min. The other treatment employed a smaller dialyzer and Qd of 300 mL/min while Qb was 350 mL/min.

Results: Treatment with the large dialyzer and higher Qd greatly increased the clearances of the bound solutes p-cresol sulfate (PCS: 27±9 versus 14±6 mL/min) and indoxyl sulfate (IS: 26±8 versus 14±5 mL/min) without altering the clearance of urea (204±20 versus 193±16 mL/min). Increasing PCS and IS clearances increased the removal of these solutes (PCS: 375±200 versus 207±86 mg/session; IS: 201±137 versus 153±74 mg/session), while urea removal was not different.

Conclusions: The removal of bound solutes can thus be increased by raising the dialyzate flow and dialyzer size above the low levels sufficient to achieve target Kt/V(urea) during extended treatment. Selectively increasing the clearance of bound solutes provides a potential means to test their toxicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Dialysis Solutions / administration & dosage*
  • Dialysis Solutions / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / blood
  • Kidney Diseases / therapy
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Prognosis
  • Protein Binding
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Renal Dialysis / instrumentation*
  • Renal Dialysis / methods*
  • Urea / metabolism*


  • Dialysis Solutions
  • Proteins
  • Urea