This systematic review provides information on malignant melanoma as second malignant neoplasm (SMN) after childhood cancer and evaluates its risk factors. Study reports describing incidences of SMN and malignant melanoma as SMN in a population of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were included. Of 151,575 CCS, 4,010 (2.6%) children developed an SMN, 212 of which were melanoma (5.3% or 0.14% of all CCS). The following risk factors for malignant melanoma as SMN were identified: radiotherapy, or the combination alkylating agents and anti-mitotic drugs. Melanomas are most frequently observed after Hodgkin disease, hereditary retinoblastoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and gonadal tumors.
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