Objective: To identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein changes in persons who will develop familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) due to PSEN1 and APP mutations, using unbiased proteomics.
Design: We compared proteomic profiles of CSF from individuals with FAD who were mutation carriers (MCs) and related noncarriers (NCs). Abundant proteins were depleted and samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry on a high-resolution time-of-flight instrument. Tryptic peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Proteins differing in concentration between the MCs and NCs were identified.
Setting: A tertiary dementia referral center and a proteomic biomarker discovery laboratory.
Participants: Fourteen FAD MCs (mean age, 34.2 years; 10 are asymptomatic, 12 have presenilin-1 [PSEN1 ] gene mutations, and 2 have amyloid precursor protein [APP ] gene mutations) and 5 related NCs (mean age, 37.6 years).
Results: Fifty-six proteins were identified, represented by multiple tryptic peptides showing significant differences between MCs and NCs (46 upregulated and 10 downregulated); 40 of these proteins differed when the analysis was restricted to asymptomatic individuals. Fourteen proteins have been reported in prior proteomic studies in late-onset AD, including amyloid precursor protein, transferrin, α(1)β-glycoprotein, complement components, afamin precursor, spondin 1, plasminogen, hemopexin, and neuronal pentraxin receptor. Many other proteins were unique to our study, including calsyntenin 3, AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) 4 glutamate receptor, CD99 antigen, di- N-acetyl-chitobiase, and secreted phosphoprotein 1.
Conclusions: We found much overlap in CSF protein changes between individuals with presymptomatic and symptomatic FAD and those with late-onset AD. Our results are consistent with inflammation and synaptic loss early in FAD and suggest new presymptomatic biomarkers of potential usefulness in drug development.