Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2012 Apr 4;351(2):269-78.
doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2011.12.017. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

Aromatase Up-Regulation, Insulin and Raised Intracellular Oestrogens in Men, Induce Adiposity, Metabolic Syndrome and Prostate Disease, via Aberrant ER-α and GPER Signalling

Affiliations

Aromatase Up-Regulation, Insulin and Raised Intracellular Oestrogens in Men, Induce Adiposity, Metabolic Syndrome and Prostate Disease, via Aberrant ER-α and GPER Signalling

Graeme Williams. Mol Cell Endocrinol. .

Abstract

For some years now, reduced testosterone levels have been related to obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, benign prostatic hypertrophy and even prostate cancer--often considered guilty more by association, than actual cause--with little attention paid to the important role of increased intracellular oestrogen, in the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases. In the final stage of the steroidogenic cascade, testosterone is metabolised to oestradiol by P450 aromatase, in the cytoplasm of adipocytes, breast cells, endothelial cells and prostate cells, to increase intracellular oestradiol concentration at the expense of testosterone. It follows therefore, that any compound that up-regulates aromatase, or any molecule that mimics oestrogen, will not only increase the activation of the mainly proliferative, classic ER-α, oestrogen receptors to induce adipogenesis and growth disorders in oestrogen-sensitive tissues, but also activate the recently identified transmembrane G protein-coupled oestrogen receptors (GPER), and deleteriously alter important intracellular signalling sequences, that promote mitogenic growth and endothelial damage. This paper simplifies how stress, xeno-oestrogens, poor dietary choices and reactive toxins up-regulate aromatase to increase intracellular oestradiol production; how oestradiol in combination with leptin and insulin cause insulin resistance and leptin resistance through aberrant serine phosphorylation; how the increased oestradiol, insulin and leptin stimulate rapid, non-genomic G protein-coupled phosphorylation cascades, to increase fat deposition and create the vasoconstrictive, dyslipidemic features of metabolic syndrome; how aberrant GPER signalling induces benign prostatic hypertrophy; and how increased intracellular oestradiol stimulates mitogenic change and tumour-cell activators, to cause prostate cancer. In essence, the up-regulation of aromatase produces increased intracellular oestradiol, increases ER-α activation and increases GPER activation, in combination with insulin, to cause aberrant downstream transduction signaling, and thus induce metabolic syndrome and mitogenic prostate growth. To understand this fact, that raised intracellular oestradiol levels in men, induce and promote obesity, gynecomastia, metabolic syndrome, type two diabetes, benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer, rather than low testosterone, represents a shift in medical thinking, a new awareness, that will reduce the rising incidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and prostate disease, and significantly improve the health of men worldwide.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 28 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback