Aims: Antibody formation to therapeutic peptides is common. This analysis characterizes the time-course and cross-reactivity of anti-exenatide antibodies and potential effects on efficacy and safety.
Methods: Data from intent-to-treat patients in 12 controlled (n = 2225,12-52 weeks) and 5 uncontrolled (n = 1538, up to 3 years) exenatide twice-daily (BID) trials and 4 controlled (n = 653,24-30 weeks) exenatide once weekly (QW) trials with 1 uncontrolled period (n = 128,52 weeks) were analysed.
Results: Mean titres peaked early (6-22 weeks) and subsequently declined. At 30 weeks, 36.7% of exenatide BID patients were antibody-positive; 31.7% exhibited low titres (≤125) and 5.0% had higher titres (≥625). Antibody incidence declined to 16.9% (1.4% higher titre) at 3 years. Similarly, 56.8% of exenatide QW patients were antibody-positive (45.0% low/11.8% higher titre) at 24-30 weeks, declining to 45.4% positive (9.2% higher titre) at 52 weeks. Treatment-emergent anti-exenatide antibodies from a subset of patients tested did not cross-react with human GLP-1 or glucagon. Other than injection-site reactions, adverse event rates in antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients were similar. Efficacy was robust in both antibody-negative and antibody-positive patients (mean HbA1c change: -1.0 and -0.9%, respectively, exenatide BID; -1.6% and -1.3% exenatide QW). No correlation between change in HbA1c and titre was observed for exenatide BID, although mean reductions were attenuated in the small subset of patients (5%) with higher titres. A significant correlation was observed for exenatide QW with no difference between antibody-negative and low-titre patients, but an attenuated mean reduction in the subset of patients (12%) with higher titres.
Conclusions: Low-titre anti-exenatide antibodies were common with exenatide treatment (32% exenatide BID, 45% exenatide QW patients), but had no apparent effect on efficacy. Higher-titre antibodies were less common (5% exenatide BID, 12% exenatide QW) and within that titre group, increasing antibody titre was associated with reduced average efficacy that was statistically significant for exenatide QW. Other than injection-site reactions, anti-exenatide antibodies did not impact the safety of exenatide.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00035984 NCT00039013 NCT00039026 NCT00044668 NCT00082381 NCT00082407 NCT00099320 NCT00099333 NCT00099619 NCT00111540 NCT00135330 NCT00308139 NCT00324363 NCT00381342 NCT00382239 NCT00637273 NCT00641056 NCT00877890.
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.