Assessment of tobacco dependence in waterpipe smokers in Egypt

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012 Jan;16(1):132-7. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.11.0457.


Setting: Waterpipe smoking is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, little is known about nicotine dependence in tobacco smokers who use waterpipes.

Objective: To assess evidence of dependence among non-cigarette smoking waterpipe smokers in Egypt.

Methods: A total of 154 male exclusive current waterpipe smokers were enrolled for the present study. We adapted the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and the Reasons for Smoking (RFS) scales and related these to smoking behavior.

Results: The mean age of the subjects was 47 ± 14 years, the mean age at smoking initiation was 22 ± 9 years, and average daily consumption was 4 ± 8 hagars (tobacco units). The time to the first smoke of the day (P < 0.001), smoking even when ill (P = 0.003), time to tobacco craving (P < 0.001), and hating to give up the first smoke of the day (P = 0.033) were each significantly associated with the number of hagars smoked per day. The RFS subscales of addictive smoking, smoking to relieve negative affect, and smoking for stimulation were also associated with these variables.

Conclusion: The overall findings suggest that waterpipe smokers exhibit many of the same features of nicotine dependency attributed to cigarette smokers.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Behavior, Addictive / epidemiology*
  • Behavior, Addictive / psychology
  • Egypt / epidemiology
  • Filtration / instrumentation
  • Habits
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Inhalation Exposure
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology
  • Tobacco*
  • Water
  • Young Adult


  • Water