Biological and Phylogenetic Characterization of a Genotype VII Newcastle Disease Virus From Venezuela: Efficacy of Field Vaccination

J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Apr;50(4):1204-8. doi: 10.1128/JCM.06506-11. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Abstract

Here we report the biological and molecular characterization of a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) circulating in Venezuela and the assessment of the vaccination efficacy under field conditions compared to controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping showed a mean embryo dead time of 50 h and an intracerebral pathogenicity index of 1.86. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus belongs to genotype VII in class II (a genotype often found in Asia and Africa), representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in the continent of South America. A vaccine-challenge trial in commercial broilers reared in fields or in a experimental setting included dual (live/killed) priming of 1-day-old chicks plus two live NDV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field vaccinations at days 7 and 17, followed by a very stringent genotype VII NDV challenge at day 28. Serology for NDV and IBDV, bursal integrity, and protection against NDV lethal challenge were assessed. At 28 days, field vaccinates showed significantly lower NDV (1,356 versus 2,384) and higher IBD (7,295 versus 1,489) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titers than the experimentally reared birds. A lower bursal size and bursa-body weight ratio (P < 0.05) and higher bursa lesion score were also detected in the field set. Only 57.1% of field vaccinates survived the lethal challenge, differing (P < 0.05) from 90.5% survival in the experimental farm. Overall, results confirmed the presence of the genotype VII viruses in South America and suggest that field-associated factors such as immunosuppression compromise the efficacy of the vaccination protocols implemented.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bursa of Fabricius / pathology
  • Bursa of Fabricius / virology
  • Chickens
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Molecular Typing
  • Newcastle Disease / prevention & control
  • Newcastle Disease / virology*
  • Newcastle disease virus / genetics*
  • Newcastle disease virus / immunology
  • Newcastle disease virus / pathogenicity
  • Phylogeny*
  • Poultry Diseases / prevention & control
  • Poultry Diseases / virology*
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Vaccination*
  • Venezuela
  • Viral Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Virulence

Substances

  • Viral Fusion Proteins
  • Viral Vaccines

Associated data

  • GENBANK/JQ319052