Of the four native nucleosides, 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) is most easily oxidized. Two lesions derived from dGuo are 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (Fapy)∙dGuo. Furthermore, while steady-state levels of 8-oxodGuo can be detected in genomic DNA, it is also known that 8-oxodGuo is more easily oxidized than dGuo. Thus, 8-oxodGuo is susceptible to further oxidation to form several hyperoxidized dGuo products. This review addresses the structural impact, the mutagenic and genotoxic potential, and biological implications of oxidatively damaged DNA, in particular 8-oxodGuo, Fapy∙dGuo, and the hyperoxidized dGuo products.