We present here the de novo assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth (DBM)), a widespread destructive pest of cruciferous plants, using short reads generated by Illumina sequencing from different developmental stages and insecticide-resistant strains. A total of 171,262 non-redundant sequences, denoted as unigenes, were obtained. They represented approximately 100-fold of all DBM mRNA and EST sequences in GenBank thus far. We identified 38,255 unigenes highly similar to the known functional protein-coding genes, most of which were annotated using gene ontology (GO) and orthologous groups of proteins (COG). Global profiling of differentially expressed unigenes revealed enriched GOs and biological pathways that were related to specific developmental stages and insecticide resistance. We also evaluated the resistance-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) using this high-throughput genotyping method. The newly developed transcriptome will facilitate researches on the DBM developmental biology and insecticide resistance evolution, and ultimately provide better pest management systems.
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