Background and purpose: Inflammation is involved in the development and/or progression of many diseases including diabetic complications. Investigations on novel anti-inflammatory agents may offer new approaches for the prevention of diabetic nephropathy. Our previous bioscreening of synthetic analogues of curcumin revealed C66 as a novel anti-inflammatory compound against LPS challenge in macrophages. In this study, we hypothesized that C66 affects high glucose (HG)-induced inflammation profiles in vitro and in vivo and then prevents renal injury in diabetic rats via its anti-inflammatory actions.
Experimental approach: Primary peritoneal macrophages (MPM), prepared from C57BL/6 mice, were treated with HG in the presence or absence of C66. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin, and the effects of C66 (0.2, 1.0 or 5.0 mg·kg(-1) ), administered daily for 6 weeks, on plasma TNF-α levels and expression of inflammatory genes in the kidney were assessed.
Key results: Pretreatment of MPMs with C66 reduced HG-stimulated production of TNF-α and NO, inhibited HG-induced IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, COX-2 and iNOS mRNA transcription, and the activation of JNK/NF-kB signalling. In vivo, C66 inhibited the increased plasma TNF-α levels and renal inflammatory gene expression, improved histological abnormalities and fibrosis of diabetic kidney, but did not affect the hyperglycaemia in these diabetic rats.
Conclusions and implications: The anti-inflammatory effects of C66 are mediated by inhibiting HG-induced activation of the JNK/NF-κB pathway, rather than by reducing blood glucose in diabetic rats. This novel compound is a potential anti-inflammatory agent and might be beneficial for the prevention of diabetic nephropathy.
© 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.