Modulation of GITR for cancer immunotherapy

Curr Opin Immunol. 2012 Apr;24(2):217-24. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2011.12.011. Epub 2012 Jan 12.


Modulation of co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory receptors of the immune system has become a promising new approach for immunotherapy of cancer. With the recent FDA approval of CTLA-4 blockade serving as an important proof of principal, many new targets are now being translated into the clinic. Preclinical research has demonstrated that targeting glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor related gene (GITR), a member of TNF receptor superfamily, by agonist antibodies or natural ligand, can serve as an effective anti-tumor therapy. In this review, we will cover this research and the rationale that has led to initiation of two phase 1 clinical trials targeting GITR as a new immunotherapeutic approach for cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR-Related Protein / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology
  • Up-Regulation


  • Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR-Related Protein