Clinical implications of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of procedural sedation agents in children

Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012 Apr;24(2):225-32. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e3283504f88.


Purpose of review: Procedural sedation has become the standard of care for managing pain and anxiety in children in the emergency department.

Recent findings: Numerous articles have been published on pediatric procedural sedation with, however, little in-depth discussion of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the sedation agents utilized.

Summary: We review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the pediatric procedural sedation pharmacopeia from a clinical perspective with emphasis on the practical implications for drug titration and dosing.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anxiety / prevention & control
  • Child
  • Conscious Sedation / adverse effects
  • Conscious Sedation / methods*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / administration & dosage
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / adverse effects
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pain / prevention & control


  • Hypnotics and Sedatives