Smoking and risk of incident psoriasis among women and men in the United States: a combined analysis

Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Mar 1;175(5):402-13. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwr325. Epub 2012 Jan 12.


The authors evaluated the association between smoking and the incidence of psoriasis among 185,836 participants from a cohort of older women (the Nurses' Health Study, 1996-2008), a cohort of younger women (the Nurses' Health Study II, 1991-2005), and a cohort of men (Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, 1986-2006). Information on smoking was collected biennially during follow-up. The authors identified a total of 2,410 participants with incident psoriasis. Compared with never smokers, past smokers had a relative risk of incident psoriasis of 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 1.52) and current smokers had a relative risk of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.64, 2.28). For current smokers who smoked 1-14 cigarettes/day, the relative risk was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.36); for those who smoked 15-24 cigarettes/day, the relative risk was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.68, 2.47); and for those who smoked 25 or more cigarettes/day, the relative risk was 2.29 (95% CI: 1.74, 3.01). There was a trend toward an increased risk of psoriasis with increasing pack-years or duration of smoking (P(trend) < 0.0001). The risk was highest among smokers who had 65 or more pack-years of smoking (relative risk = 2.72, 95% CI: 2.05, 3.60) and among those with a smoking duration of 30 or more years (relative risk = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.75, 2.25). The authors observed a graded reduction of risk with an increase in time since smoking cessation (P(trend) <0.0001). In this study, smoking was found to be an independent risk factor for psoriasis in both women and men. Psoriasis risk was particularly augmented for heavy smokers and persons with longer durations of smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Psoriasis / epidemiology
  • Psoriasis / etiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Report
  • Sex Distribution
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • United States / epidemiology