Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of mucormycosis

Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;54 Suppl 1:S23-34. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir866.


Mucormycosis is an emerging angioinvasive infection caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order of the class of Zygomycetes. Mucormycosis has emerged as the third most common invasive mycosis in order of importance after candidiasis and aspergillosis in patients with hematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Mucormycosis also remains a threat in patients with diabetes mellitus in the Western world. Furthermore, this disease is increasingly recognized in recently developed countries, such as India, mainly in patients with uncontrolled diabetes or trauma. Epidemiological data on this type of mycosis are scant. Therefore, our ability to determine the burden of disease is limited. Based on anatomic localization, mucormycosis can be classified as one of 6 forms: (1) rhinocerebral, (2) pulmonary, (3) cutaneous, (4) gastrointestinal, (5) disseminated, and (6) uncommon presentations. The underlying conditions can influence clinical presentation and outcome. This review describes the emerging epidemiology and the clinical manifestations of mucormycosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / complications
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / epidemiology
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / microbiology
  • Cross Infection / complications
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • Diabetes Complications / microbiology
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / complications
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / microbiology
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Mucorales / pathogenicity*
  • Mucormycosis / classification
  • Mucormycosis / complications*
  • Mucormycosis / epidemiology*
  • Mucormycosis / microbiology
  • Organ Transplantation / adverse effects
  • Rheumatic Diseases / complications
  • Rheumatic Diseases / microbiology
  • Risk Factors


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones