HIV-associated Kidney Glomerular Diseases: Changes With Time and HAART

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Jun;27(6):2349-55. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr676. Epub 2012 Jan 16.

Abstract

Background: Treatment and co-morbidities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have changed dramatically in the last 20 years with a potential impact on renal complications. Our objective was to assess the change in distribution of the glomerular diseases in HIV patients.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed demographic, clinical, laboratory and renal histopathological data of 88 HIV-infected patients presenting with a biopsy-proven glomerular disease between 1995 and 2007.

Results: In our study including 66% Black patients, HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was observed in 26 cases, classic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in 23 cases, immune complex glomerulonephritis in 20 cases and other glomerulopathies in 19 patients. HIVAN decreased over time, while FSGS emerged as the most common cause of glomerular diseases (46.9%) in HIV-infected individuals undergoing kidney biopsy in the last 2004-07 period. Patients with HIVAN were usually Black (97%), with CD4 <200/mL (P = 0.01) and glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P < 0.01). Compared to HIVAN, patients with classic FSGS were less often Black (P < 0.01), have been infected for longer (P = 0.03), were more often co-infected with hepatitis C virus (P = 0.05), showed more often cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (P < 0.01), had less often CD4 <200/mL (P = 0.01), lower HIV viral load (P = 0.01) and tended to be older (P = 0.06).

Conclusions: Classic FSGS associated with metabolic and CV risk factors has overcome HIVAN in HIV-infected patients. Compared with other glomerulopathies, HIVAN remains strongly associated with severe renal failure, Black origin and CD4 lower than 200/mL at presentation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / etiology*
  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / mortality
  • Adult
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / etiology*
  • Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / mortality
  • HIV / isolation & purification
  • HIV / pathogenicity*
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors