Deep tissue photoacoustic imaging using a miniaturized 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer array

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2012 May;59(5):1199-204. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2012.2183593. Epub 2012 Jan 11.


In this paper, we demonstrate 3-D photoacoustic imaging (PAI) of light absorbing objects embedded as deep as 5 cm inside strong optically scattering phantoms using a miniaturized (4 mm × 4 mm × 500 μm), 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array of 16 × 16 elements with a center frequency of 5.5 MHz. Two-dimensional tomographic images and 3-D volumetric images of the objects placed at different depths are presented. In addition, we studied the sensitivity of CMUT-based PAI to the concentration of indocyanine green dye at 5 cm depth inside the phantom. Under optimized experimental conditions, the objects at 5 cm depth can be imaged with SNR of about 35 dB and a spatial resolution of approximately 500 μm. Results demonstrate that CMUTs with integrated front-end amplifier circuits are an attractive choice for achieving relatively high depth sensitivity for PAI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chickens
  • Hair / chemistry
  • Horses
  • Miniaturization
  • Muscle, Skeletal / chemistry
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Photoacoustic Techniques / instrumentation*
  • Photoacoustic Techniques / methods*
  • Transducers*
  • Ultrasonography / instrumentation*