Islet autoantibodies and residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes children followed for 3-6 years

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012 May;96(2):204-10. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2011.12.013. Epub 2012 Jan 16.


Aims: To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D.

Methods: T1D children (n=260, median age at diagnosis 9.4, range 0.9-14.7 years) were tested for GAD65, IA-2, ZnT8R, ZnT8W and ZnT8Q autoantibodies (A) at diagnosis, and 3-6 years after diagnosis when also fasting and stimulated RBF were determined.

Results: For every 1-year increase in age at diagnosis of TID, the odds of detectable C-peptide increased 1.21 (1.09, 1.34) times for fasting C-peptide and 1.28 (1.15, 1.42) times for stimulated C-peptide. Based on a linear model for subjects with no change in IA-2A levels, the odds of detectable C-peptide were 35% higher than for subjects whose IA-2A levels decreased by half (OR=1.35 (1.09, 1.67), p=0.006); similarly for ZnT8WA (OR=1.39 (1.09, 1.77), p=0.008) and ZnT8QA (OR=1.55 (1.06, 2.26) p=0.024). Such relationship was not detected for GADA or ZnT8RA. All OR adjusted for confounders.

Conclusions: Age at diagnosis with T1D was the major predictor of detectable C-peptide 3-6 years post-diagnosis. Decreases in IA-2A, and possibly ZnT8A, levels between diagnosis and post-diagnosis were associated with a reduction in RBF post-diagnosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Autoantibodies / immunology*
  • Cation Transport Proteins / immunology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Female
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / immunology*
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology*
  • Male
  • Zinc Transporter 8


  • Autoantibodies
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • ICA512 autoantibody
  • SLC30A8 protein, human
  • Zinc Transporter 8
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase
  • glutamate decarboxylase 2