Background: The sigma-2 receptor has been identified as a biomarker of proliferating cells in solid tumours. In the present study, we studied the mechanisms of sigma-2 ligand-induced cell death in the mouse breast cancer cell line EMT-6 and the human melanoma cell line MDA-MB-435.
Methods: EMT-6 and MDA-MB-435 cells were treated with sigma-2 ligands. The modulation of multiple signaling pathways of cell death was evaluated.
Results: Three sigma-2 ligands (WC-26, SV119 and RHM-138) induced DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP-1 cleavage. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK partially blocked DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity caused by these compounds. These data suggest that sigma-2 ligand-induced apoptosis and caspase activation are partially responsible for the cell death. WC-26 and siramesine induced formation of vacuoles in the cells. WC-26, SV119, RHM-138 and siramesine increased the synthesis and processing of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, an autophagosome marker, and decreased the expression levels of the downstream effectors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70S6K and 4EBP1, suggesting that sigma-2 ligands induce autophagy, probably by inhibition of the mTOR pathway. All four sigma-2 ligands decreased the expression of cyclin D1 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, WC-26 and SV119 mainly decreased cyclin B1, E2 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb); RHM-138 mainly decreased cyclin E2; and 10 μM siramesine mainly decreased cyclin B1 and pRb. These data suggest that sigma-2 ligands also impair cell-cycle progression in multiple phases of the cell cycle.
Conclusion: Sigma-2 ligands induce cell death by multiple signalling pathways.