Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes patients in France: prevalence, influence of glycaemic control and implications for the pharmacological management of diabetes

Diabetes Metab. 2012 Apr;38(2):102-12. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2011.11.005. Epub 2012 Jan 16.

Abstract

Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with chronic kidney disease. For this reason, this article reviews the relationship between treatment of T2DM and renal disease.

Method: The review presents the recent French data on the management of diabetes in patients with renal impairment, and discusses the implications of renal disease for the treatment of such patients. Prescribing data are presented for various antidiabetic treatments, and the use of the more commonly prescribed medications is discussed with reference to T2DM patients with renal disease.

Results: In France, it is estimated that 4-5% of the general population has T2DM and that almost 40% of patients with end-stage renal failure have diabetes. Diabetes and renal disease are both risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Glycaemic control is pivotal in T2DM patients for minimizing the risk of vascular complications and hypoglycaemic episodes, particularly in patients with renal disease who also have a higher risk of hypoglycaemia. Whereas poorly controlled glycaemia increases the risk of renal disease and its progression, the risk is diminished in patients treated intensively for diabetes and in those who achieve stable glycaemic control. Intensive multitargeted treatment can also help to decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially if started early in patients who have not yet developed macrovascular complications.

Conclusion: In recent years, considerable improvement has been observed in France regarding the follow-up of diabetic patients. Less extensive, but nonetheless significant, improvement has also been observed in glycaemic control. However, even though treatment decisions generally take renal function into account, some at-risk treatments are often still being used in patients with renal insufficiency.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / blood
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / drug therapy*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria / blood
  • Proteinuria / drug therapy*
  • Proteinuria / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / blood
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human