Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink: a controlled trial

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr;66(4):523-9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.223. Epub 2012 Jan 18.


Background/objectives: Observational studies indicate that sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD) may promote obesity, among other factors, owing to low-satiating effects. The effect of energy in drinks on appetite is still unclear. We examined the effect of two isocaloric, but macronutrient, different beverages (SSSD versus semi-skimmed milk) and two non-energy-containing beverages (aspartame-sweetened soft drink (ASSD) and water) on appetite, appetite-regulating hormones and energy intake (EI).

Subjects/methods: In all, 24 obese individuals were included in a crossover trial. Each subject was served either 500 ml of SSSD (regular cola: 900 kJ), semi-skimmed milk (950 kJ), ASSD (diet cola: 7.5 kJ), or water. Subjective appetite scores, ghrelin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were measured at baseline and continuously 4-h post intake. Ad libitum EI was measured 4 h after intake of the test drinks.

Results: Milk induced greater subjective fullness and less hunger than regular cola (P<0.05). Also, milk led to 31% higher GLP-1 (95% CI: 20, 44; P<0.01) and 45% higher GIP (95% CI: 23, 72; P<0.01) concentrations compared with SSSD. Ghrelin was equally 20% lower after milk and SSSD compared with water. The total EI (ad libitum EI+EI from the drink) was higher after the energy-containing drinks compared with diet cola and water (P<0.01).

Conclusions: Milk increased appetite scores and GLP-1 and GIP responses compared with SSSD. The energy containing beverages were not compensated by decreased EI at the following meal, emphasizing the risk of generating a positive energy balance by consuming energy containing beverages. Furthermore, there were no indications of ASSD increased appetite or EI compared with water.

Trial registration: NCT00776971.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Appetite / drug effects
  • Aspartame / administration & dosage
  • Carbonated Beverages*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Energy Intake / drug effects
  • Female
  • Ghrelin / metabolism
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / metabolism
  • Hormones / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hunger / drug effects
  • Male
  • Milk*
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Satiation / drug effects
  • Satiety Response / drug effects*
  • Sucrose / analogs & derivatives
  • Sweetening Agents / administration & dosage
  • Sweetening Agents / pharmacology
  • Young Adult


  • Ghrelin
  • Hormones
  • Sweetening Agents
  • Sucrose
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Aspartame

Associated data