LIM domain proteins all contain at least one double zinc-finger motif. They belong to a large family and here we review those expressed mainly in mammalian hearts, but particularly in cardiomyocytes. These proteins contain between one and five LIM domains and usually these proteins contain other domains that have specific functions such as actin-binding, kinases and nuclear translocation motifs. While several recent reviews have summarised the importance of individual LIM domain proteins, this is the first review of its kind to cover all LIMs associated with the heart. Here we examine 33 LIM proteins (including three that bind to, but do not themselves contain, LIM domains) that are implicated in either the development of the heart, heart disorders and failure, or both. Our analysis is consistent with the view that cardiac LIM domain proteins form multiple extensive networks of multi-protein complexes within the myocardium. This multiplicity of binding partners probably protects the heart as it is challenged to maintain cardiac output, until the imbalance reaches a turning point that results in failure. We believe that the complexity of LIM interactions is properly described by the term LIM interactome.
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