High intraglomerular pressure is associated with renal hyperfiltration, leading to the initiation and progression of kidney disease in experimental models of diabetes mellitus (DM). In humans, hyperfiltration is observed in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM, and is also seen in patients with pre-diabetic conditions, such as the metabolic syndrome. From a mechanistic perspective, both vascular and tubular factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of hyperfiltration. Until now, human studies have primarily focused on the use of medications that inhibit the renin angiotensin system to reduce efferent vasoconstriction and thereby improve hyperfiltration. More recent advances in the development of investigational adenosine antagonists and inhibitors of sodium glucose co-transport may help to elucidate tubular factors that contribute to afferent vasodilatation. In this review, we summarize available data from experimental and human studies of type 1 and type 2 DM and obesity to provide an overview of factors that contribute to the hyperfiltration state. We have focused on the renin angiotensin system, cyclooxygenase-2 system, nitric oxide, protein kinase C and endothelin as vascular determinants of hyperfiltration. We also discuss relevant tubular factors, since experimental models have suggested that inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransport may be renoprotective.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Glomerular filtration rate; Hyperfiltration; Metabolic syndrome.