Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied in more than 70000 patients worldwide during the last two decades. The main target is the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for the treatment of motor complications in late stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Positive results in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated non-human primates have set the grounds for its successful translation to PD patients. Since then, this model has allowed gaining significant insights in the underlying mechanisms of action of DBS and is currently being used for the development of new stimulation techniques. Altogether, this underpins the high potential of this preclinical model for future translation of DBS research in PD.