Congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVM) and structural chromosome abnormalities: a report of 9 cases and literature review

Clin Genet. 1990 Sep;38(3):198-210. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.1990.tb03571.x.


Nine cases of congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVM) with associated unbalanced structural chromosomal abnormalities were ascertained in a population-based study of heart defects, constituting 0.4% of the 2,103 cases of CCVM in the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study (BWIS). This represents a four-fold increase over the general population rate. In an effort to determine possible phenotype/karyotype correlations, the literature was searched for cases with similar karyotypic abnormalities. This comparison of 223 literature cases of karyotypic abnormalities with nine similar cases ascertained by heart malformation has provided the opportunity to review cardiac defects reported in cases of structural abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, and 18. The most common cardiac malformation present in the chromosomal cases was ventricular septal defect (VSD) (39%); similarly VSD is the most common CCVM among children with heart defects, although it is the primary defect in only 20% of the BWIS cases. Among all heart defects in the BWIS, atrial septal defect (ASD) represents 5.5% of all cases, but in cases of 8p duplication, ASD is present in 41%. In addition, 40% of cases of 9p duplication had an ASD. Similarly, 35% of cases of 11q duplication had an ASD. While the suggestion of specific karyotype/phenotype association is premature, information on additional cases might clarify the possibility that genetic determinants related to septum formation may reside on chromosome 8, 9, and/or 11. The variety of chromosomal abnormalities in cases with ventricular septal defect indicates one type of genetic heterogeneity that may be involved in this very common heart defect.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chromosome Aberrations / genetics*
  • Chromosome Disorders
  • District of Columbia / epidemiology
  • Genes / genetics*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / epidemiology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Karyotyping
  • Maryland / epidemiology
  • Phenotype
  • Virginia / epidemiology