The reported incidence of prostate cancer has risen since the implementation of screening. It is felt that the introduction of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing is responsible for most patients with prostate cancer now being diagnosed with asymptomatic, clinically localised disease. Diagnosis at this stage is associated with significantly improved treatment outcomes and longer life expectancy. Although there is evidence that screening has reduced prostate cancer mortality, there is a risk of over-diagnosis and over-treatment of early state prostate cancers, including clinically insignificant and indolent cancers. Active surveillance and focal therapy have been advocated as potential management options for some patients. However, these approaches face several challenges. Biopsy sampling errors together with less than optimal imaging of tumours can lead to difficulties in selecting suitable low-risk patients for these options. To overcome these challenges, novel approaches to the staging and monitoring of patients with early prostate cancer are being developed. These include new imaging techniques, such as multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging, and the development of new biomarkers and biopsy-based methods. These techniques aim to assess the potential of a specific tumour to be aggressive, and to improve patient outcomes. The aim of the present paper is to summarise presentations and debates at the third annual Interactive Genitourinary Cancer Conference concerning the use of population-based screening methods and the roles of active surveillance and focal therapy as prostate cancer treatments. The application of novel imaging biopsy-based methods and biomarkers in early-stage prostate cancer will also be explored.
© 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.