Introduction: Nitric oxide (NO) vasodilation critically modulates renal hemodynamics in the neonate compared with the adult. Based on the postnatal expression pattern of renal neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the hypothesis was that nNOS is the major NOS isoform regulating renal hemodynamics in the immature, but not mature, kidney.
Results: NOS inhibitors did not alter mean arterial pressure (MAP) in either group. Intrarenal S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (L-SMTC) in newborns significantly reduced renal blood flow (RBF) 38 ± 4%, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 42 ± 6%, and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) 37 ± 7%, whereas intrarenal L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) affected RBF, GFR, and RVR equivalent to L-SMTC treatment. When L-NAME was administered after L-SMTC treatment, newborn renal hemodynamic changes were not further altered from what was observed when L-SMTC was administered alone. In contrast, in the adult, only intrarenal L-NAME, and not L-SMTC, affected renal hemodynamic responses.
Discussion: In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that nNOS is an important regulator of renal hemodynamics in the newborn kidney, but not in the adult.
Methods: Experiments compared renal hemodynamic responses with intrarenal infusion of L-NAME, an inhibitor of all NOS isoforms, with the selective nNOS inhibitor L-SMTC in the newborn piglet and the adult pig.