Obesity is a significant contemporary health concern that carries wide-ranging implications for society, as well as for individual health and well-being. In particular, the neuropsychological sequelae of obesity carry wide ranging functional implications. While research in this area is growing, our knowledge of obesity-related cognitive dysfunction and brain alterations has not yet been synthesized. The present review integrates the recent literature regarding patterns of obesity-related cognitive dysfunction and brain alterations and also indicates potential mechanisms for these neuropathological changes. The review culminates in a preliminary model of obesity-related cognitive dysfunction and suggestions for future research, including the potential reversibility of these changes with weight-loss.