Effects of 6 months of endurance training on neutrophil functions to produce reactive oxygen species and mental states in male long-distance runners

Luminescence. 2013 Jan-Feb;28(1):23-9. doi: 10.1002/bio.1390. Epub 2012 Jan 18.


To clarify changes of neutrophil functions, mental conditions and relationships among them, 19 male elite long-distance runners participated in this study for 6 months. Examinations, with informed consent, were carried out once a month. According to the results of physical characteristics, it was thought that training intensity was reduced after the main race, Hakone-Ekiden. Neutrophil functions were estimated by indices of reactive oxygen species production, determined by luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (LmCL and LgCL, respectively) and cytochrome c reduction methods. The peak times (PT) in LmCL and LgCL (LgPT) were most prolonged in January and December, respectively. The peak heights (PH) in LmCL (LmPH) were enhanced in February. Decreased levels of negative categories in the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire and the total mood state (TMS) of POMS were observed in February without significance. Correlation analysis using measured values revealed significant negative correlation between LmPH and negative categories in POMS; however, these correlations were possibly a mere appearance, caused by personal differences. After eliminating personal differences, LgPT correlated positively to depression (p< 0.05), anger (p< 0.05), fatigue (p < 0.01) and TMS (p< 0.05). These results suggest that the mean time from the recognition of foreign matter to the maximum production of superoxide from neutrophils is prolonged in the mentally suppressed conditions found under continuous physical training.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Affect
  • Athletes / psychology*
  • Cytochromes c / analysis
  • Cytochromes c / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Luminescent Measurements
  • Male
  • Neutrophils / chemistry
  • Neutrophils / metabolism*
  • Physical Endurance*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / analysis
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism*
  • Running
  • Young Adult


  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Cytochromes c