Effects of cooking temperatures on the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of chicken stock

J Food Sci. 2012 Jan;77(1):S19-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02435.x. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Abstract

As a base for sauces, soups, and cooking liquids for meats, grains, and vegetables, stocks can be integral to the overall quality of restaurant menu items, however, science-based studies on the effects of cooking methods on the physiochemical and sensory properties of stock are lacking. The effects of starting (22 °C, 85 °C, and 99 °C) and cooking temperatures (85 °C and 99 °C) of chicken stock on clarity, color, viscosity, protein content, amino acid content, mineral content, and overall liking were measured. Protein content and viscosity were significantly higher for stocks cooked at 99 °C, but no effect on amino acid content, color, or clarity was observed. Calcium concentration in stocks cooked at 99 °C was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower (9.3 and 10.1 mg/mL, for stocks started at temperatures of 22 and 99 °C, respectively) than stock cooked at 85 °C (16.6 and 17.5 mg/mL for stocks started at temperatures of 22 and 85 °C, respectively). Stocks prepared at 99 °C scored higher on overall liking compared to commercial samples and those cooked at 85 °C (P= 0.0101). These data can be used by culinary scientists and professionals to develop more efficient techniques in the kitchen, and by product developers to optimize the overall quality and acceptance of stock.

Practical application: This work documents the effects of preparation method on the physical and chemical properties, and consumer acceptance of chicken stock. This information can be used by product developers, culinary scientists, and professional chefs to optimize stock-based products. Culinary educators can use this information to provide students with objective evidence-based rationale for the techniques underlying a celebrated culinary tradition. This is also an example of how research can facilitate collaboration between culinary and food science professionals.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium / analysis
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chickens
  • Color
  • Consumer Behavior*
  • Cooking*
  • Dietary Proteins / analysis
  • Fast Foods / analysis
  • Female
  • Flavoring Agents / chemistry
  • Food Preferences*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Meat Products / analysis*
  • Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
  • New Zealand
  • Quality Control
  • Sensation
  • Viscosity

Substances

  • Dietary Proteins
  • Flavoring Agents
  • Calcium